Back to imamuseum.org

The IMA in Egypt, Part 2: Have Gun – Will Travel

Today’s blogger is Dr. Gregory Dale Smith, the Otto N. Frenzel III Senior Conservation Scientist at the IMA. Dr. Smith is reporting through a series of blog posts on the IMA’s involvement in a new exhibition at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology in Ann Arbor, Discovery! Excavating the Ancient World.

Figure 1. A Bruker Tracer III-V portable XRF spectrometer positioned vertically in a bench top stand alongside a Bruker Alpha FTIR spectrometer. Dr. Smith uses the FTIR to analyze the organic binder in small fragments of paint.

Figure 1. A Bruker Tracer III-V portable XRF spectrometer positioned vertically in a bench top stand alongside a Bruker Alpha FTIR spectrometer. Dr. Smith uses the FTIR to analyze the organic binder in small fragments of paint.

An X-ray gun that is! In a previous post, I described a collaborative project with the University of Michigan’s Kelsey Museum of Archaeology and the American Research Center in Egypt that sought to find a better means of excavating, stabilizing, and preserving beautifully-decorated, but incredibly fragile painted funerary artifacts. My role in the 2013 field season was to identify the materials of these coffins, statues, and wooden objects in order to better inform the approaches to their conservation. To do this, I needed to transport several scientific instruments to our field site in Abydos, Egypt. The IMA’s X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, a.k.a. the X-ray gun, was one of those analytical tools, ideal for determining the elemental composition of the objects’ inorganic components (metals, minerals, stone) and small enough to be easily transported to a dig site lab (see Figure 1).

Figure 2. The Abydos dig house wet chemistry laboratory was used to test for proteins and polysaccharides in the paints used to decorate wooden funerary objects.

Figure 2. The Abydos dig house wet chemistry laboratory was used to test for proteins and polysaccharides in the paints used to decorate wooden funerary objects.

For the organic components (paint binders, wood, resins, waxes, textiles, glues), a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer loaned by Bruker Instruments complemented wet chemical tests conducted in our makeshift field lab, shown in Figure 2.

Figure 3. Blue tape solves the persistent problem of loose electrical adapters while a tea kettle and insulated thermos replace a lab hotplate for warming reaction test tubes.

Figure 3. Blue tape solves the persistent problem of loose electrical adapters while a tea kettle and insulated thermos replace a lab hotplate for warming reaction test tubes.

Operating a field lab in the desert requires a good deal of patience and creativity. Daily power outages, loss of the internet, and an omnipresent layer of dust can complicate analyses that would be quick and routine in the IMA’s state-of-the-art laboratories (see Figure 3).  Stay tuned for the final installment describing the results of our research and some future research directions.

Filed under: African Art, Art, Conservation, IMA Staff

 

The Venini Chandelier sparkles again

Since the IMA took ownership of the Miller House and Garden in 2009, we have come to know more intimately the gift of a 20th-century architectural masterpiece. The Miller House is worthy of many superlatives, but as an older house requiring care and maintenance it presents challenges and surprises just as would any other. The questions may be framed slightly differently, but the joys and frustrations are much the same.

Bonnie Cate and Jeanine Franke (Miller House housekeeper) cleaning individual glass pieces while Ben Wever, site Administrator, and Bradley Brooks gently remove each strand of glass from the chandelier.

Bonnie Cate and Jeanine Franke (Miller House housekeeper) cleaning individual glass pieces while Ben Wever, site Administrator, and Bradley Brooks gently remove each strand of glass from the chandelier.

A task that we knew we would face one day was bulb replacement and cleaning of the Venini chandelier above the Millers’ dining table. This fixture was not part of the original furnishing scheme for the house, but came as a later addition after the Millers purchased it in Italy in about 1960. We had heard stories of the care and effort required of Miller employees to dismantle the chandelier for cleaning, but being reluctant to tackle such a daunting project, I had pushed it to the back burner where it stayed until nearly every bulb was out. Now we had no choice. Dismantle or go dark!

Chandelier with all metal and glass components removed. Tags indicate pattern of glass colors to help with reassembly.

Chandelier with all metal and glass components removed. Tags indicate pattern of glass colors to help with reassembly.

To prepare for the task, we padded and covered the dining table and placed a series of folding tables nearby on which we could wash and dry each of the 200 individual polyhedral glass “prisms.” A crew of four went to work; two to stand on the table to dismantle the chandelier, and two to do the washing and drying. In this design, the glass elements are suspended from a steel frame on linked wires, each pendant group fastened to the frame with a tiny nut and bolt. Tedious work, but we soon found the system and a rhythm. It took until early evening to reassemble everything, but with the glass cleaned, the sparkle of the chandelier was restored, more charming than ever.

The newly cleaned Venini chandelier lit up.

The newly cleaned Venini chandelier lit up.

With the glass off the frame, it was evident that the chandelier still had its original European wiring and fittings, which had been adapted to accept standard U.S. chandelier-base bulbs. Yellowed with age, they are past due for a rewiring. That will be a task for the winter. Just like every old house project, one thing only leads to another.

Filed under: Conservation, Design, Miller House

 

The IMA in Egypt, Part 1: Science in the Sand

Today’s blogger is Dr. Gregory Dale Smith, the Otto N. Frenzel III Senior Conservation Scientist at the IMA. Dr. Smith is reporting through a series of blog posts on the IMA’s involvement in a new exhibition at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology in Ann Arbor, Discovery! Excavating the Ancient World.

This spring I was part of a multi-disciplinary team tackling tricky archaeology in Egypt. The University of Michigan’s Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, under the direction of Egyptologist Dr. Janet Richards, excavates a famous cemetery site there, the Abydos Middle Cemetery (AMC). Abydos, positioned mid-way up the Nile River, was the burial site of Egypt’s earliest kings. Archaeologists commonly encounter beautifully-decorated funerary materials at the site, like the painted wood coffin shown below.

Figure 1. A painted coffin being unearthed at the Abydos Middle Cemetery excavation. Photo, S. Davis, courtesy of the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology.

Figure 1. A painted coffin being unearthed at the Abydos Middle Cemetery excavation. Photo, S. Davis, courtesy of the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology.

Although these artifacts look well preserved, they are anything but! The wood has been attacked by fungi and termites to the point that only a brittle web of debris, insect frass (a.k.a. bug poop), and mud is holding it together. On top of this delicate matrix is an eggshell-thin layer of gesso and paint. How does one excavate and lift these fragile objects without crushing them? Archaeologists and conservators currently use a variety of methods to preserve these artifacts, but none work very well. The goal of this project was to find better approaches that could be used in the harsh desert conditions.

Figure 2. Dr. Smith descending into a cistern at Sepphoris, Israel.

Figure 2. Dr. Smith descending into a cistern at Sepphoris, Israel.

So why me? To develop new conservation methods, the AMC conservators needed to understand the paints, pigments, and other materials present on the artifacts. Any new conservation treatment they designed would have to be sympathetic to these materials and not cause unexpected harm. Since no artifacts, or even samples of artifacts, are allowed to leave Egypt, the scientist and the necessary equipment would have to travel to Egypt with the project team. As it happens, I have a background in both chemistry and archaeology. While a chemistry graduate student at Duke University, I spent my summers excavating at Sepphoris in Israel’s Galilee region (Figure 2). With my conservation science expertise, the necessary portable instruments, and previous experience in archaeology, I was a natural fit.

ima_egypt_fig3_101513The project team would spend several days in Cairo consulting with local conservators and visiting museums with artifacts similar to those at the field site. Then we were off to Abydos for a week of analysis and conservation trials. Our group, pictured below in front of the modern-day Abydos village, consisted of:

  • AMC/Kelsey Museum conservators Suzanne Davis and Claudia Chemello
  • Smithsonian Institution conservator Rae Beaubien, a specialist in the excavation of fragile archaeological materials
  • The MFA Boston’s Pamela Hatchfield, who has considerable expertise in the conservation of Egyptian antiquities
  • Dr. Robert Blanchette, professor of plant pathology and specialist in archaeological wood at the University of Minnesota
  • Mycologist Dr. Ahmed Abdel-Azeem, from Egypt’s University of Suez Canal, who has studied the fungi of North Africa

Stay tuned for part two of the story as I discuss working in the field!

 

Filed under: African Art, Art, Conservation, IMA Staff, Travel

 

Indiana by the Numbers

Commissioned in 1980 for the 20th anniversary of Melvin Simon & Associates (now Simon Property Group), Robert Indiana’s eight-foot-tall polychrome Numbers are iconic works from one of America’s most recognizable artists. The new exhibition Indiana by the Numbers (opening this Friday, May 24) traces the history of their design and fabrication, tells the story of their display before they were donated to the IMA in 1989, and provides a glimpse into their recent restoration and repainting by the IMA conservation department.

Robert Indiana (American, b. 1928), Numbers, 1980-1983, painted aluminum, 8x8x4 ft. (each), Gift of Melvin Simon and Associates, 1988.246. (c) 2013 Morgan Art Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Robert Indiana (American, b. 1928), Numbers, 1980-1983, painted aluminum, 8x8x4 ft. (each), Gift of Melvin Simon and Associates, 1988.246. (c) 2013 Morgan Art Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

I asked Richard McCoy, conservator of objects and variable art, about the exhibition.

Read the rest of this entry »

Filed under: Conservation, Contemporary

 

Burn Out or Fade Away

Today's Guest Bloggers are Gregory Dale Smith, Ph.D., the IMA's Otto N. Frenzel III Senior Conservation Scientist, and Michael Columbia, Ph.D., Sabbatical Leave Research Fellow - IPFW

It is an uncomfortable truth that in showing you an artwork in a museum, we are potentially destroying it.  As a conservation professional, it feels wrong to admit that, but it is true.  Every photon, or packet of radiant energy, that strikes the surface of an art object has the potential to do damage, and we most often see that as a negative change in the artwork’s aesthetics: darkening, fading, yellowing, chalking, crosslinking, etc.  It’s an unstoppable phenomenon, but one that proceeds at a variety of rates.  Certainly color change is one of the most notable alterations that light can cause in an artwork, and so we must dole out the expected lifetime of an object using an informed and rational approach.  Conservators and collections managers go to great pains to protect artwork by limiting its exposure to light.  This can take the form of reducing light intensity, restricting its spectral output, or limiting the duration of an exhibition.  These stewards of the collection get additional insight and data from scientists who study the fading behavior of artists’ materials.

For the past several months the IMA has been conducting a condition survey of its photograph collection, over 800 objects that span the history of the medium.  This program is sponsored by a generous grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), a wing of the federal government that supports museum and conservation activities.  In addition to the inventory and conservation assessment of each artwork, the grant has also funded a study of the lightfastness of the contemporary color photographs in the collection using a technique called microfade testing (MFT), or microfadeometry.  The goal of the study is to determine the susceptibility to color change for the highest priority color photographs in the collection and to determine patterns of lightfastness among the many photographic processes.  This data in turn informs our exhibition, loan, and lighting guidelines for the collection.

Figure 1

Figure 1. Watercolor paint outs after artificial light aging.

  Read the rest of this entry »

Filed under: Conservation, Photography, The Collection

 

Recent Flickrs

Dream Cars opneing partyDream Cars opneing partyDream Cars opneing partyDream Cars opneing partyDream Cars opneing partyDream Cars opneing party