dddd Northwest Coast Arctic and Sub-Arctic

Northwest Coast

The Northwest Coast cultural region, which stretches along the Pacific Ocean from the Alaskan Panhandle to northern California, is one of the world’s richest natural environments. A Native population of more than 500,000 resides in this region of dense forests, majestic snowcapped mountains, and rocky ocean inlets punctuated with islands. While the cultures of this region have much in common, there is an astonishing diversity of dialects.
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Arctic and Subarctic

The Arctic cultural area encompasses 5,000 miles along the shoreline of northern Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. Beyond the northern tree line is a land of rolling tundra with a few mountain peaks. Winters are long and severe, and the subsoil remains frozen during the short summers.
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California and the Great Basin

The neighboring Great Basin and California cultural regions could not be more different from each other. The Great Basin is a large desert expanse encompassing Nevada, Utah, eastern California, and northern Arizona and New Mexico.
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The Woodlands cultural area stretches along the Atlantic seaboard, from the polar coast of Canada in the north to the tropical swamps of Florida in the south, and sprawls westward through the Great Lakes region to the Mississippi Valley. Beginning in the 16th century, European encroachment on Native lands and resources pressed Woodlands peoples north, south, and westward. The tremendous upheavals and migration caused by disease and warfare in this period loosened the ties of modern Woodlands people to their ancient predecessors.
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Great Plains and Plateau

The Plains, Prairie, and Plateau cultural region is an area of more than one million square miles that is defined by the Mississippi Valley to the east, the Rocky Mountains to the west, Manitoba and Saskatchewan to the north, and the Mexican border of Texas to the south. The Plains are vast grasslands with occasional hills and forested enclaves in the river valleys. Plains peoples farmed and hunted in and around their villages until Europeans displaced them from their ancestral lands beginning in the 1600s, ushering in a nomadic period that lasted from about 1750 to the late 1870s.
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The Southwest cultural region incorporates the lower parts of Utah and Colorado, all of Arizona and New Mexico, and the northern deserts of Mexico. The land is a semi-arid mix of deserts, canyons, mesas, and mountains. The Ndee (Apache) and Diné (Navajo) migrated to the Southwest from the western Subarctic before 1500 and adapted to the challenges of living in an arid terrain.
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